A dental crown is a kind of restoration that covers the visible part of the tooth.The dental crown is used to restore teeth that are significantly destroyed by caries, broken, cracked or discolored. The dental crown is used for those teeth that require replenishment of lost functions or aesthetics. The dental crown covers the visible part of the tooth from all sides and is fixed with a special cement. Unlike a seal that restores one or more tooth surfaces, the crown covers the tooth completely. The very word “covering” indicates that the crown covers the tooth from all sides and becomes its new surface thereby restoring the original shape of the tooth. Unlike the seals, crowns are made in a laboratory way, outside the mouth. The result of this will be a dental crown that will not only perfectly restore the shape of the tooth, but also exactly match the individual characteristics of the bite. Sometimes the shape of the dental crown is better than the original tooth shape. Crowns are used for several reasons:
- To restore the anatomical shape
- To restore the function of the tooth
- To strengthen the tooth
- To improve the aesthetic appearance of the tooth
The first dental prosthetics dates back to the 6th century BC. Archaeologists have discovered a skull. In the jaw of the skull, an implant was fixed, which served to restore the root of the tooth. The product was created from the shell of the mussel. When excavating the ancient city of Tarquinia, archaeologists discovered a prosthesis replacing several teeth in a row. The product was attached with gold rings to healthy teeth. Despite the discoveries, for many centuries the installation of artificial teeth remained inaccessible to most people: the treatment was costly and could be afforded only by very wealthy individuals. Until the middle of the 18th century, dentures had a very strange appearance. The restoration of teeth with the help of prostheses created from the bones of cattle (especially elephants), the teeth of horses or walruses was very much spread out. However, these materials were used in prosthetics of the teeth and they were attached to healthy teeth with silver or gold wire.
It is believed that modern dental crowns were invented in the 18th century. In addition, the Frenchman Pierre Fauchard was the first to invent a pin that served to strengthen the root of the tooth. On its basis, he united several crowns. Therefore, the first tooth bridges appeared. The beginning of the active development of tooth crowns is the end of the 19th century. Gradually they improved thousands of researchers and practicing dentists began to present their inventions to the world.
Modern dental crown
Modern dental practice is very multifaceted; the patients have unprecedented opportunities and a choice of dental crowns. To restore teeth, metal, ceramic and metal-ceramic crowns are mainly used.
Restoring teeth with metal crowns is one of the old and proven means but far from aesthetic. Until recently, the most common were crowns made of steel, steel with spraying (titanium nitride), and gold. Metal crowns, depending on the type of manufacture, can be stamped and cast. For the production of stamped crowns, standard blanks (sleeves, which are pulled through a special device to the desired size) are used. Gold crowns are much more useful than steel, but they are much softer and faster erased. On the other hand, because gold is soft, dentists can achieve an ideal fit of the dental crown to the tooth. Gold crowns can withstand the chewing load well and almost never break or chop. Metal crowns are usually placed on the side teeth so that they cannot be seen with a smile.
Ceramic crowns are entirely made of ceramics (porcelain). Their main distinguishing feature is their transparency, which imitates the natural optical properties of the tooth, and hence high aesthetics. In addition, porcelain does not darken with time, does not absorb various dyes, and does not wear off. The main drawback is a low strength. Therefore, such crowns are used to restore the front teeth, where maximum aesthetics are necessary.
Metal-ceramic crowns are the crowns, which are made of ceramics and metal. Metal-ceramic crowns are something in between ceramic and metal crowns. They have the advantages of these two kinds of crowns, although metal-ceramic crowns also have disadvantages. For the manufacture of metal-ceramic crowns, the dental technician first makes a metal frame, and then ceramic is added to the metal. Therefore, metal-ceramic crowns have a natural appearance. With metal-ceramic crowns, the front and back teeth are restored. Most people restore their front teeth because they have a natural appearance. A very significant disadvantage of metal-ceramic crowns is that they wear out the opposite tooth strongly with which they are in touch when chewing, biting. However, with all this, the dignity of metal-ceramic crowns clearly outweigh the disadvantages. The average dental crown serves from five to fifteen years.
Crowns are very popular. They are placed on the affected, chipped, blackened, and teeth with other defects.