Rhinoplasty of the nose is an aesthetic operation to change the shape or size of the outer part of the nose. Rhinoplasty is performed with the elimination of congenital defects and deformation after injuries. One of its main goals is a harmonious change in the shape of the nose while preserving individual features. Rhinoplasty is a correction of the shape of the nose, which is considered one of the most complex aesthetic operations.
The nose performs a variety of functions. The main function of the nose is to carry air through the nasopharynx and then through the upper respiratory tract into the lungs. The others nose functions include the olfactory, cleansing, warming, and moisturizing air that we breathe in, as well as the voice function. With the development of civilization, the nose as the most prominent part of the face began to play a more important aesthetic role. The shape of the nose largely determines the individuality and attractiveness of a person.
The development of rhinoplasty
Rhinoplasty as a surgical branch has a certain history in its development. In the notion of appearance throughout the history of civilization, the shape of the nose occupies the most important position. Therefore, the simplest way to disfigure a person is to deprive him of the nose. In the ancient world, such execution was a common thing: they cut noses off the criminals, pulled out nostrils. For example, in India, infidel wives, murderers, rapists, and other criminals were punished by cutting off the nose. In addition, because of military operations, the crippled warriors returned home. Often, the face and nose of soldiers were injured. Thus, without a nose, the person waited for the complete collapse of all life, in personal and social. It can be assumed that the need to restore the nose was the first direction in aesthetic surgery.
Rhinoplasty was performed in ancient India and Egypt. The main goal of rhinoplasty at the time was the movement of tissues for restorative purposes with significant defects in the tissues of the nose. Doctors of Ancient India have made considerable progress with rhinoplasty. For plastics of the nose after its traumatic deformation, they applied a skin flap with a feeding vessel, which was cut out in the region of the cheek or forehead. The main drawback of this operation was the formation of prominent scars on the face. Some techniques of ancient Indian rhinoplasty are used by plastic surgeons and now. The development of rhinoplasty in Ancient India received a significant boost because one of the types of punishment was cutting off the tip of the nose.
With the development of methods of anesthesia, rhinoplasty began to set itself and aesthetic goals. The book of the Berlin surgeon J.Joseph (1931) made him the “father” of a new approach in rhinoplasty and introduced his name to the number of outstanding plastic surgeons of the century. In his guide to rhinoplasty, the German surgeon systematized the methods of rhinoplasty, correcting the shape of the nose through internal incisions. He first gave a description of seams, which were designed to correct a wide and not sufficiently outlined tip of the nose. An important feature of J.Joseph a rhinoplasty was that it consisted of various options for removing cartilaginous and bony structures, with the purpose of reducing the nose, narrowing the tip of the nose, removing the hump of the nose, and so forth.
The beginning of rhinoplasty as an operation to improve the appearance and correction of nasal breathing is considered 1887 when the work of the American otolaryngologist O.Roe appeared. He also began using intranasal access to perform rhinoplasty. At the same time, O.Roe stressed that saving a full nasal breathing in rhinoplasty is not only an extreme necessity for the sake of human health and comfort but also an important element in correcting the deformities of the external nose.
Only later, with the accumulation of experience of new plastic surgeons, it became clear that rhinoplasty methods must be combined with a variety of suture techniques. Modern rhinoplasty involves changing the shape of the cartilage of the nose without significant damage and removal. The beginning of the modern development of rhinoplasty can be considered the 70s of the 20th century when standards of the European nose were formed and popularized. The development of anesthesiology and techniques for performing rhinoplasty was accompanied by an increase in the reliability of solving the aesthetic problems of patients. The society made the idea of rhinoplasty as a method of surgical improvement of appearance one of the most popular. Because of this, rhinoplasty operations have become widespread in all countries of the world. A new approach to rhinoplasty included the use of seams that altered the shape and position of the cartilage. In addition, doctors began to apply a variety of cartilaginous transplants, which will fix a new form of cartilaginous elements of the nose.
The desire for attractiveness and beauty was typical of a woman at all times The confirmation of this statement is the fact that five thousand years ago noble Indian women resorted to the services of professional healers with a view to an aesthetic perfection of certain features of their person. However, today the modern medicine allows women and men to find beauty and adjust their appearance without difficulty. Among the obvious advantages of rhinoplasty, it should be noted that this operation guarantees 100% the quality of breathing safety. Thus, modern rhinoplasty is one of the tops of plastic surgery. Rhinoplasty is a way of achieving perfect beauty, attractiveness, and getting rid of psychological complexes and barriers.